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Let’s Encrypt免费HTTPS加密证书安装
实验环境:CentOS 7.4 64位内核版本:Linux version 3.10.0-693.2.2.el7....
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2018/05

Let’s Encrypt免费HTTPS加密证书安装

实验环境:CentOS 7.4 64位
内核版本:Linux version 3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64
Nginx版本:nginx-1.14.0

Let’s Encrypt是一个免费的、自动化、开放的证书颁发机构。由Mozilla、Cisco、Chrome、facebook、Akamai等众多公司和机构发起的,其安全稳定及其可靠。具体信息可以去letsencrypt官方网站了解详情。

Alt text

今天我们就充分利用Lets Encrypt让你的网站实现https加密。

官网:https://letsencrypt.org/

安装证书

$ yum install -y epel-release

Certbot是Let’s Encrypt官方指定推荐的客户端。通过 Certbot,你可以自动化部署 Let’s Encrypt SSL证书,以便为网站加上HTTPS加密支持。

$ yum install certbot
$ certbot certonly
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
How would you like to authenticate with the ACME CA?
//你是希望如何使用ACME CA进行身份验证?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Place files in webroot directory (webroot)
//将文件放在webroot目录
2: Spin up a temporary webserver (standalone)
//使用临时Web服务器(独立目录)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel):1 【选择1回车】
Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices) (Enter 'c' to
cancel):su@renwole.com【输入您的邮箱地址,用于紧急更新和安全通知】
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Please read the Terms of Service at
https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.1.1-August-1-2016.pdf. You must agree
in order to register with the ACME server at
https://acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(A)gree/(C)ancel: A【选择A回车同意服务条款,C为拒绝】
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Would you be willing to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier
Foundation, a founding partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit
organization that develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about EFF and
our work to encrypt the web, protect its users and defend digital rights.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(Y)es/(N)o:Y【您是否愿意分享您的电子邮件地址,建议选择Y回车】
Please enter in your domain name(s) (comma and/or space separated) (Enter 'c'
to cancel): blog.renwole.com【输入域名回车】
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for blog.renwole.com
Select the webroot for blog.renwole.com:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Enter a new webroot
//输入网站绝对路径
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Press 1 [enter] to confirm the selection (press 'c' to cancel):1【选择数字1回车】
Input the webroot for blog.renwole.com: (Enter 'c' to cancel):/home/www/blog.renwole.com【输入网站所在绝对路径回车】
Waiting for verification...
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
Generating key (2048 bits): /etc/letsencrypt/keys/0001_key-certbot.pem
Creating CSR: /etc/letsencrypt/csr/0001_csr-certbot.pem
IMPORTANT NOTES:
- Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
/etc/letsencrypt/live/blog.renwole.com/fullchain.pem. Your cert
will expire on 2017-08-09. To obtain a new or tweaked version of
this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To
non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot
renew"
- If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:
Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate
Donating to EFF:

恭喜!您的SSL证书和密钥链接已保存,你的证书将于2017-08-09到期。
注意:这里需要说明,在生成证书之前,你必须保证nginx 443端口是运行状态,否则会生成证书失败。

常见问题

键入certbot certonly报错

安装之后,键入certbot certonly,可能会提示报错,如图所示:
Alt test

解决方案:
这块我确实不太明白,可能就是版本的问题,缺少python的配置库,我也是查找了好多资料解决的

$ pip uninstall requests
$ pip uninstall urllib3
$ yum remove python-urllib3
$ yum remove python-requests
$ yum install python-urllib3
$ yum install python-requests

按照提示来就OK
最后在键入$ certbot certonly
按照上面的安装步骤提示走一遍,在最后一步输入域名时,可能会报错,此时停下来。

键入

sudo certbot certonly --webroot --webroot-path=/home/hulang/www/niaobulashi -d niaobulashi.com

最终会生成letsencrypt的证书文件:包括证书私钥文件privkey.pem、证书链文件fullchain.pem
Alt test

查看证书信息

$ certbot certificates

Alt test

自动续订

Certbot可以配置为在证书过期之前自动更新证书。由于Let’s Encrypt SSL证书有效期时间为90天,所以建议您利用此功能。您可以通过运行以下命令来测试证书的自动续订:

$ sudo certbot --nginx certonly

如果以上正常工作,你可以通过添加运行以下操作的cron或systemd定时任务安排自动更新:

$ certbot renew

我们写一个自动执行脚本,建议每小时执行一次:

$ sudo crontab -e

添加以下内容:

0 */6 * * * /usr/bin/certbot renew --quiet && /bin/systemctl restart nginx

保存并退出!
通过命令查看是否添加成功:

$ crontab -l
0 */6 * * * /usr/bin/certbot renew --quiet && /bin/systemctl restart nginx

重启crontab

$ systemctl restart crond.service

证书是否续订成功,可以通过以下命令管理查看证书信息:

$ certbot certificates

配置Nginx

接下来修改Nginx配置文件,修改sever段,去掉相应注释,将生成的SSL证书填写到ssl_certificate后面,将生成的密钥填写到ssl_certificate_key后面,保存并重启nginx服务器即可。

这块配置文件我其实不太熟,最主要的是反代那里,不懂的千万先别乱加内容(ó﹏ò。)我可是尝到苦头了。你只需要注意配置上证书信息即可,别的先别管啦

$ vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
server {
 listen 443 ssl;
 ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/blog.renwole.com/fullchain.pem;
 ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/blog.renwole.com/privkey.pem;
# ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
 ssl_session_timeout 5m;
# ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
 ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
# location / {
 # root html;
 # index index.html index.htm;
 # }
 }

使用谷歌浏览器访问https://blog.my.com/ 可以看到绿色的安全小锁图标,说明网站已经https加密成功。

Alt test

参考文章

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/RAf2STrsqbmO2Q3YqgAujw
https://www.uumoon.cn/article/index/comm/66.html

文章名: 《Let’s Encrypt免费HTTPS加密证书安装》
文章链接:https://niaobulashi.com/archives/ssl.html
除特别注明外,文章均为鸟不拉屎原创,转载时请注明本文出处及文章链接
公众号:鸟不拉屎(一个正在努力Coding的未来架构师)
Last modification:July 20th, 2018 at 04:08 pm

Leave a Comment

3 comments

  1. 清酒踏月

    过来转转ヾ(≧∇≦*)ゝ,

    1. 鸟不拉屎
      @清酒踏月

      ヾ(≧∇≦*)ゝ,谢谢来访

  2. 胡浪同學

    由于种种因素。。。暂时先把小绿锁解开
    啪啪啪,脸好痛